The Bernard and Audre Rapoport Center for Human Rights and Justice

Partners for change at the intersection of academics and advocacy.

Human Rights Happy Hour Speaker Series Biography Archives


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George Annas is the William Fairfield Warren Distinguished Professor and Chair of the Department of Health Law, Bioethics & Human Rights at Boston University School of Public Health. In addition, he is also Professor at the Boston University School of Medicine and School of Law. He is the co-founder of Global Lawyers and Physicians, a transnational professional association of lawyers and physicians working together to promote human rights and health. He is a fellow of the American Association for the Advancement of Science, a member of the Institute of Medicine, vice-chair of the American Bar Association’s Committee on Health Rights and Bioethics (Individual Rights and Responsibilities Section), and a member of the Committee on Human Rights of the National Academy of Sciences. He has also held a variety of government regulatory posts, including Vice Chair of the Massachusetts Board of Registration in Medicine, Chair of the Massachusetts Health Facilities Appeals Board, and Chair of the Massachusetts Organ Transplant Task Force. Annas is the author or editor of nineteen books on health law and bioethics, including Worst Case Bioethics: Death, Disaster, and Public Health, American Bioethics: Crossing Human Rights and Health Law Boundaries, and The Rights of Patients. In addition, he has written regular features for both the Hastings Center Report and the American Journal of Public Health, and is currently writing a regular feature for the New England Journal of Medicine. Annas has been called “the father of patient rights,” “the doyen of American medico-legal analysts,” and a “national treasure.” After graduating from law school, he clerked for Justice John V. Spalding of the Massachusetts Supreme Judicial Court, and then moved to Boston to become Director of the Center for Law and Health Sciences at Boston University School of Law. He earned an AB in economics from Harvard University, a JD from Harvard Law School, and an MPH from the Harvard School of Public Health, where he was a Joseph P. Kennedy Fellow in Medical Ethics.

Didier Fassin is the James D. Wolfensohn Professor of Social Science at the Institute for Advanced Study, the Director of Studies at the École des Hautes Études en Sciences Sociales, the president of Comité Medical pour les Exilés, and an associate editor for Medical Anthropology. He is the founder of Institut de Recherche Interdisciplinaire sur les Enjeux Sociaux and former vice president of Médecins Sans Frontières. An anthropologist and a sociologist, Fassin has conducted fieldwork in Senegal, Ecuador, South Africa, and France. Trained as a physician in internal medicine and public health, he dedicated his early research to medical anthropology, illuminating important dimensions of the AIDS epidemic, mortality disparities, and global health. More recently, he has developed the field of critical moral anthropology, which explores the historical, social, and political signification of moral forms involved in everyday judgment and action as well as international relations. He is currently conducting an ethnography of the state, through a study of police, justice, and prison, and analyzes the possible contribution of the social sciences to a public debate regarding security, punishment, and inequality. His recent books include The Empire of Trauma: An Inquiry Into the Condition of Victimhood (2009), Humanitarian Reason: A Moral History of the Present (2011), and Enforcing Order: An Ethnography of Urban Policing (2013). He has published articles in the American Journal for Public Health, Current Anthropology, and Social Science and Medicine, and occasionally writes for the French newspapers Le Monde and Libération. Fassin earned an MD from Université Pierre et Marie Curie, an MPH from the University of Paris, and a PhD from École des Hautes Études en Sciences Sociales.

Sofia Gruskin is Director of the Program on Global Health & Human Rights and Professor of Preventive Medicine and Professor of Law at the University of Southern California. She is also Adjunct Professor of Global Health at the Harvard School of Public Health and joint coordinator of the Rights-Oriented Research and Education (RORE) Network in Sexual and Reproductive Health. Her work has been instrumental in the conceptual, methodological, and empirical development of the linkage between health and human rights, with a focus on HIV/AIDS, sexual and reproductive health, child and adolescent health, gender-based violence, and health systems. She has extensive experience in research, training, and programmatic work with nongovernmental, governmental, and intergovernmental organizations working in the fields of health and human rights around the world. Gruskin is currently an associate editor for The American Journal of Public Health, Global Public Health, and Reproductive Health Matters. In addition to having published articles in these journals, she has also contributed to the Journal of the International AIDS Society and the Journal of Public Health Policy and is author or editor of multiple books, including Health and Human Rights in a Changing World, Perspectives on Health and Human Rights, and Health and Human Rights: A Reader. Gruskin earned a JD from Yeshiva University’s Benjamin N. Cardoza School of Law and an MIA from the Columbia University School of International and Public Affairs.

Lovell Jones is Professor Emeritus at both UT MD Anderson Cancer Center and the UT Graduate School of Biomedical Sciences. Before he retired, he was Professor in the Department of Health Disparities Research and in the Department of Biochemistry and Molecular Biology at MD Anderson as well as Research Professor of Social Work at the University of Houston. He is the founding co-chair of the Intercultural Cancer Council, the nation’s largest multicultural health policy group focused on minorities, the medically underserved, and cancer. In addition, he is the founder of the Health Disparities, Education, Awareness, Research and Training (HDEART) Consortium, which attempts to address health disparities utilizing the "Biopsychosocial Model.” He has served on the board of directors of the National Coalition for Cancer Survivorship, the National Advisory Environmental Health Sciences Council of the National Institutes of Health (NIH), and the Prostate Health Council of the American Foundation for Urologic Diseases. Dr. Jones also served on the Institute of Medicine’s Roundtable for Environmental Health Sciences, Research, and Medicine and on the Environmental Protection Agency's Scientific Advisory Panel. He has published over 120 articles on subjects ranging from hormonal carcinogenesis to health policy in journals such as the New England Journal of Medicine, the Journal of the American Medical Association, and American Journal of Public Health. His current research projects include an examination of diet and exercise in reducing the risk of breast cancer and preventing tumor recurrence in breast cancer survivors, and an investigation of the relationship between the environment and genes in the development of disease in migrant farm worker children. Dr. Jones earned a PhD in zoology, with an emphasis on endocrinology and tumor biology, from the University of California, Berkeley.

Mitchell Katz is currently the director of the Los Angeles County Department of Health Services. Dr. Katz started off as head of research in the AIDS Office in San Francisco’s public health department. He launched his rise through the ranks as the director or chief of the department’s other offices—including epidemiology, emergency medical services, and community health and safety—until he was named director of health in 1997. As the head of San Francisco’s Department of Health, he oversaw a $1.5 billion budget, about 8,600 employees, two hospitals, and nine health care centers. In 2007, Katz was one of several San Francisco health leaders who started Healthy San Francisco (HSF), a comprehensive medical care program for the city’s 60,000 uninsured adults. HSF provides outpatient, inpatient, laboratory, behavioral health, and pharmacy services at 14 public health clinics and a private hospital-based clinic. He also worked on an initiative that took more than 1,000 chronically homeless people out of shelters and placed them in supportive housing, and serves as principal investigator in three studies testing new drugs for treating children and adolescents with Crohn’s disease. Dr. Katz has published articles in the American Journal of Preventative Medicine, JAMA Internal Medicine, and Pain Practice. He has also published several books, including Multivariable Analysis: A Practical Guide for Clinicians and Public Health Researchers and Evaluating Clinical and Public Health Interventions: A Practical Guide to Study Design and Statistics. Katz earned a BA in psychology from Yale University and an MD from Harvard Medical School. He then completed his residency in internal medicine at the University of California, San Francisco, where he was a Robert Wood Johnson Foundation Clinical Scholar.

Raj Patel is a Research Professor in the Lyndon B Johnson School of Public Affairs at the University of Texas, Austin and a Visiting Professor at the Unit for the Humanities at Rhodes University (UHURU), South Africa. He has been a visiting scholar at UC Berkeley’s Center for African Studies, an Honorary Research Fellow at the School of Development Studies at the University of KwaZulu-Natal, and continues to be a fellow at The Institute for Food and Development Policy, also known as Food First. He was also an IATP Food and Community Fellow from 2011-2013, and co-taught the 2014 Edible Education class at UC Berkeley with Michael Pollan. Patel has worked for the World Bank and WTO, and protested against them around the world. He has also testified about the causes of the global food crisis to the US House Financial Services Committee and is an Advisor to the United Nations Special Rapporteur on the Right to Food. In addition to numerous scholarly publications in economics, philosophy, politics, and public health journals, he regularly writes for The Guardian, and has contributed to the Financial Times, LA Times,, The San Francisco Chronicle, The Mail on Sunday, and The Observer. His first book was Stuffed and Starved: The Hidden Battle for the World Food System and his latest, The Value of Nothing, is a New York Times best seller. He is currently working on a documentary about the global food system with award-winning director Steve James. Patel earned a BA from the University of Oxford, a Master’s degree from the London School of Economics, and a PhD from Cornell University.


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Samuel Bagenstos is Professor of Law at the University of Michigan School of Law. He specializes in constitutional and civil rights litigation. He is author of numerous law review articles and of Law and the Contradictions of the Disability Rights Movement (Yale University Press, 2009) and Disability Rights Law: Cases and Materials (Foundation Press, 2010). From 2009-2011, he served as the Principal Deputy Assistant Attorney General for Civil Rights, the number-two official in the Civil Rights Division. Today, he frequently consults with civil rights organizations and remains an active appellate and Supreme Court litigator in civil rights and federalism cases. Bagenstos has also testified before Congress on several occasions, including in support of the Fair Pay Restoration Act, the ADA Amendments Act, the Employment Non-Discrimination Act, and the Convention on the Elimination of All Forms of Discrimination Against Women, as well as on the application of the ADA to advancing technology and the problem of mental illness in prisons. Prior to joining the University of Michigan, Bagenstos was on the law faculties at Harvard and Washington University. And prior to joining academia, he clerked for Judge Stephen Reinhardt on the Ninth Circuit and Justice Ruth Bader Ginsburg of the U.S. Supreme Court. He earned his BA with highest honors and highest distinction from the University of North Carolina and his J.D. magna cum laude from Harvard Law School.

Laura Carlson is an Associate Professor of Law at Stockholm University School of Law. Her research interests include Swedish and European equality law, labor and employment law, and comparative law. Her books include The Fundamentals of Swedish Law (Studentlitteratur AB, 2009), Swedish Labour and Employment Law: Cases and Materials (Lustu Forlag, 2008)(with Ronnie Eklund and Tore Sigeman), Searching for Equality: Sex Discrimination, Parental Leave and the Swedish Model with Comparisons to EU, UK & US Law (Coronet Books, 2007), and American Business Law: A Civil Law Perspective (Lustu Forlag, 2004). Prior to academia, Carlson clerked for United States Federal Chief Magistrate Franklin L. Noel. She earned a B.A. in History from Carleton College, legal degrees from Stockholm University and Uppsala University in Sweden, and a J.D. cum laude from the University of Minnesota School of Law.

Sonia Dayan-Herzbrun is Professor Emeritus of Social Sciences at University Paris Diderot-Paris 7. She is the editor of Turmoil, an interdisciplinary journal on contemporary politics and a member of RING (the National Interdisciplinary Network on Gender). Dayan-Herzbrun is a member of the French National Commission of UNESCO and Vice President of the Commission's Social Sciences Committee. In 1991, she founded the Centre for the Sociology of Political Practices and Representations (CSPRP), and is Vice President of the Association of University Members for the Respect of International Law in Palestine. In 1987, she completed a study of Palestinian women for the U.N. Dayan-Herzbrun publishes on topics related to social theory, critical theory, post-colonialism, feminism, and the Middle East. Her most recent book is Women and Politics in the Middle East (L'Hartmattan, 2005).

Hilal Elver is a Research Professor in Global Studies and Co-director of the Project on Climate Change, Human Security and Democracy at the University of California, Santa Barbara. She has also taught at the Ankara University School of Law. Elver was appointed by the Turkish government to serve as founding legal advisor of the Ministry of Environment and by the United Nations Environment Program (UNEP) at the Mediterranean Academy of Diplomatic Studies in Malta as the UNEP Chair in Environmental Diplomacy. She has published on international environmental law, human rights, and women's rights. Her most recent book, The Headscarf Controversy: Secularism and Freedom of Religion (Oxford Press, 2012), offers the "first global examination of the headscarf controversy" and examines legal and political debates in Turkey and European countries on the exclusion of observant Muslim women from the public sphere in the name of women's rights. She earned a J.D. and Ph.D. from University of Ankara Law School and an S.J.D. from UCLA School of Law.

Richard Falk is Albert G. Milbank Professor Emeritus of International Law and Practice at Princeton University and Visiting Distinguished Professor in Global and International Studies at the University of California, Santa Barbara. Falk has served as United Nations Special Rapporteur on human rights in the Occupied Palestinian Territories since 2008, and served on the UN-appointed Human Rights Inquiry Commission for the Palestinian Territories in 2001. He is the author of numerous books, including The Declining World Order: America's Imperial Geopolitics (Routledge, 2013), Achieving Human Rights (Routledge, 2008), and The Great Terror War (Arris Books, 2003). Falk is a member of the editorial board of several journals and magazines, including the American Journal of International Law, Third World Quarterly, Globalizations, The Nation, and The Progressive. Falk is currently the Chair of Nuclear Age Peace Foundation's Board of Directors. He earned a B.S. in Economics from the Wharton School at the University of Pennsylvania, an LL.B. from Yale Law School, and a J.S.D. from Harvard Law School.

Liz Fekete is the Executive Director of the Institute of Race Relations (IRR) and head of its European research program. She has worked with IRR for three decades and specializes in contemporary racism, refugee rights, far-right extremism, and Islamophobia across Europe. She is currently an associate of the International State Crime Initiative at King's College London. Her recent project, "Alternative Voices on Integration in Europe," foregrounds the work of youth groups and innovative anti-racist projects whose initiatives are largely ignored by the mainstream. Fekete has written and spoken widely on issues of migration, race, and security in Europe, and her books include A Suitable Enemy: Racism, Migration and Islamophobia in Europe (Pluto Press, 2009) and They Are Children Too: a Study of Europe's Deportation Policies (Institute of Race Relations, 2007). Fekete was part of the CARF (Campaign Against Racism and Fascism) Collective and an expert witness at the Basso Permanent People's Tribunal on asylum and the World Tribunal on Iraq. She earned a B.A. in Humanities from Middlesex University.

Juán Garcés is a Spanish attorney and was the lead prosecutor in the Spanish case against General Augusto Pinochet of Chile. He coordinated and led a multinational team of ten lawyers representing nearly 4,000 plaintiffs in approximately 3,000 cases of assassination, forced disappearance, and torture under Pinochet's regime. Since 2009, Garcés' work has focused on having the Spanish courts investigate the crimes against humanity committed under General Franco's dictatorship. Garcés has published a number of books including Soberanos e Intervenidos. Estrategias globales Americanos y españoles (Siglo XXI, 2008), Allende y La Experiencia Chilena (Siglo XXI, 1976), and Democracia y contrarrevolución (1975). Before the military coup in 1973, Garcés was a political advisor to Salvador Allende. He has also served as the advisor to the General Director of UNESCO. Garcés received the Right Livelihood Award in 1999 for outstanding vision and work on behalf of the planet and its people, and was honored by the French President Jacques Chirac in 2000 with the Chevalier de l'Ordre Nationale du Mérite. He earned a law degree from the University Complutense of Madrid and doctorates in political science from both the University of Madrid and the Sorbonne.

Mitchel Lasser is the Jack G. Clarke Professor of Law and Director of Graduate Studies at Cornell Law School and co-directs the Cornell Summer Institute of International and Comparative Law in Paris. He teaches and writes in the areas of comparative law, law of the European Union, comparative constitutional law, and judicial process. He is author of numerous law review articles, as well as of Judicial Transformations: The Rights Revolution in the Courts of Europe (Oxford University Press, 2009) and Judicial Deliberations: A Comparative Analysis of Judicial Transparency and Legitimacy (Oxford University Press, 2004). Before joining Cornell in 2004, Lasser was the Samuel D. Thurman Professor of Law at the University of Utah's S.J. Quinney College of Law. He has since been a Visiting Professor at the University of Paris-I (Panthéon-Sorbonne), the University of Lausanne, the University of Geneva, the Institut d'Etudes Politiques de Paris, the European University Institute in Florence, NYU School of Law, and Yale Law School. He received a B.A. from Yale College, a J.D. from Harvard Law School, and an M.A. in French literature and a Ph.D. in comparative literature from Yale University.

Fionnuala D. Ní Aoláin is the Dorsey & Whitney Chair in Law at the University of Minnesota Law School and a co-founder and professor of the University of Ulster's Transitional Justice Institute in Belfast, Northern Ireland. Her research interests include international law, human rights, national security, transitional justice, and feminist legal theory. She has published widely across a variety of topics including emergency powers, conflict regulation, transitional justice, and sex-based violence in times of war. Her books include Exceptional Courts and Military Commissions in Comparative and Policy Perspective (Cambridge University Press, 2012)(with Oren Gross), On the Frontlines: Gender, War and the Post-Conflict Process (Oxford University Press, 2011)(with Naomi Cahn and Dina Haynes), Law in Times of Crisis (Cambridge University Press, 2006)(with Oren Gross), and The Politics of Force (Blackstaff Press, 2000). Ní Aoláin was a representative for the prosecutor at the International Criminal Tribunal for the Former Yugoslavia and was appointed by the Secretary General of the UN as Special Expert on promoting gender equality in times of conflict and peace-making. She also was appointed as a consultant by the Office of the High Commissioner on Human Rights and UN WOMEN to prepare a study on Reparations for Conflict Related Sexual Violence. She has twice been nominated to the European Court of Human Rights, and has served on the Irish Human Rights Commission. She has held professorships and fellowships at Harvard Law School, Columbia Law School, Princeton University, and the Institute of Advanced Studies at Hebrew University in Jerusalem. Ní Aoláin received her LL.B. and Ph.D. in law at the Queen's University Law Faculty in Belfast and holds an LL.M from Columbia Law School.

Aziz F. Rana is an Associate Professor of Law at Cornell University Law School. His research interests include American constitutional law and political development, with a particular focus on citizenship, national security, and immigration. He is the author of The Two Faces of American Freedom (Harvard University Press, 2010). His current book project, No Other Gods: Security, Citizenship, and the Victory of Constitutional Patriotism, examines how emerging constitutional veneration in the mid-twentieth century, especially in relation to national security imperatives, helped shape popular politics. Rana was an Oscar M. Ruebhausen Fellow in Law at Yale University. He holds an A.B. from Harvard University, a J.D. from Yale Law School, and a Ph.D. in Government from Harvard University, where his dissertation was awarded the Charles Sumner Prize.

Kerry Rittich is Professor at the Faculty of Law and the Women's and Gender Studies Institute at the University of Toronto. She teaches and writes in the areas of international law and international institutions, law and development, human rights, labour law, and critical and feminist theory. Among her publications are Labour Law, Work and Family: Critical and Comparative Perspectives (Oxford University Press, 2005), Recharacterizing Restructuring: Law, Distribution and Gender in Market Reform (The Hague: Kluwer Law International, 2002)(with Joanne Conaghan, University of Kent), and numerous articles and book chapters. In 2004, she completed a report for the Law Commission of Canada entitled, Vulnerable Workers: Legal and Policy Issues in the New Economy. Rittich has been the Mackenzie King Visiting Professor of Canadian Studies at Harvard Law School and the Weatherhead Center for International Affairs at Harvard University, as well as a fellow at the European University Institute. Before entering academia, she served as Law Clerk to Madame Justice Claire L'Heureux-Dubé at the Supreme Court of Canada. Rittich obtained an LL.B. from the University of Alberta and an S.J.D. from Harvard University.

Michael E. Tigar is Emeritus Professor of the Practice of Law at Duke University School of Law and Professor Emeritus of Law at American University Washington College of Law. His work focuses on constitutional law, criminal law and procedure, the French legal system, and human rights. He has written extensively about litigation, trial practice, criminal law, and criminal defense. He is the author or editor of more than a dozen books, including Thinking About Terrorism: The Threat to Civil Liberties in Times of National Emergency (American Bar Association, 2007), Fighting Injustice (American Bar Association, 2003), and Law and the Rise of Capitalism (2d ed., Monthly Review Press, 2000). Tigar has taught at the University of Texas School of Law, where he held the Joseph D. Jamail Chair in Law, at UCLA School of Law, and at Faculté de Droit et des Sciences Politiques, Université Paul Cezanne, Aix-en-Provence. In addition to his extensive work as a legal scholar, he has had a long and distinguished career as a litigator. He has argued seven cases before the U.S. Supreme Court and over one hundred appellate cases. He has represented many notable clients, including The Washington Post, John Connally, Sen. Kay Bailey Hutchison, Scott McClellan, Rep. Ronald Dellums, Mobil Oil, Fernando Chavez, Lynne Stewart, and Terry Lynn Nichols. He was an associate and a partner at Williams & Connolly, and a partner in his own firm, Tigar & Buffone. Tigar earned a B.A. and J.D. from the University of California at Berkeley.

Leti Volpp is the Robert D. and Leslie Kay Raven Professor of Law in Access to Justice at the University of California, Berkeley, School of Law. Her research interests include citizenship, migration, culture, and identity. She has been published widely on issues of citizenship, migration, and identity, and is the co-editor of Legal Borderlands: Law and the Construction of American Borders (Johns Hopkins University Press, 2006)(with Mary Dudziak). Her most recent publication, "Imaginings of Space in Immigration Law", in Law, Culture and the Humanities (2012), explores legal, ethical, and practical discussions related to immigration. Prior to teaching at Boalt Hall, she held professorships at American University and Washington College of Law and visited at UCLA School of Law. Before entering academia, Volpp received a Skadden Fellowship to work at Equal Rights Advocates and the ACLU Immigrants' Rights Project and also clerked for U.S. District Court Judge Thelton E. Henderson of the Northern District of California. Her honors include two Rockefeller Foundation Humanities Fellowships, a MacArthur Foundation Individual Research and Writing Grant, and the Association of American Law Schools Minority Section Derrick A. Bell, Jr., Award. Volpp holds an A.B. from Princeton University, an M.S.P.H. from Harvard University, an M.S. from University of Edinburgh, and a J.D. from Columbia University.

Pablo Ceriani is Professor of Law and Coordinator of the Migration & Human Rights Program at the Center for Human Rights at the National University of Lanús, Argentina. His research focuses on human rights, migration, and refugee law. He has worked on these issues in various contexts around the world, including Africa, Asia, North and South America, and Europe. Ceriani has published numerous journal articles and books on migration and human rights, and has edited and co-published many others. Most recently, he edited a report titled The Rights of Child and Adolescent Migrants at the Mexico-Guatemala Border (Ed. Fontarama, Mexico City, originally published in Spanish). In addition to his academic work, Ceriani was recently appointed to the UN's Committee on the Rights of Migrant Workers. He has also worked as a lawyer and clinical coordinator at Centro de Estudios Legales y Sociales (CELS). He has served as a consultant for UNICEF and UNFPA on the rights of child, adolescent, and female migrants, and has consulted for the ILO and the International Organization for Migration (IOM). Additionally, he has served as a visiting professor in Belgium, Mexico, Spain, and the U.S., and has presented at numerous conferences, workshops, and seminars around the world. He is an associate with Global Migration Policy Associates. He earned a Master's degree and a law degree from the University of Buenos Aires, and is currently pursuing a PhD at the University of Valencia.

Pablo de Larrañaga Monjaraz is professor of constitutional law and regulation at the Instituto Tecnológico Autónomo de México (ITAM). He is also director of ITAM's LL.M. program in Administrative Law and Regulation and director of its program on Regulation, Infrastructure and Development. His areas of interest are public law, constitutional law and regulation, and legal theory. He is the author of four books dealing with issues of law, politics, economics, and responsibility, and has authored numerous journal articles and book chapters. His most recent book, Regulación. Técnica juridica y razonamiento económico (Regulation. Legal Technique and Economic Reasoning) offers a systematic approach to public law and political economy in regulatory contexts. Larrañaga has participated in and presented papers at numerous conferences, including in a number of countries in Latin America and Europe. He was a visiting researcher at Harvard Law School in 2004. He has been a member of the Mexican National System of Researchers (SNI) since 2007, and has received research grants from the Spanish Ministry of Education and Culture, CONACYT, and the EU Erasmus Program. Larrañaga received an LL.B. with honors from ITAM, an LL.M. from the European Academy of Legal Theory, and a diploma and Ph.D. cum laude from the University of Alicante.

Donald Ferencz is the founder and convenor of the Global Institute for the Prevention of Aggression and a co-organizer of the worldwide campaign to ratify the 2010 Kampala amendments to the ICC Statute. Ferencz was a contributing author to the 2012 Handbook on the Ratification and Implementation of the Kampala Amendments to the Rome Statute of the International Criminal Court, a "how-to" manual to advise states on the implementation of new amendments regarding aggression. Ferencz and his father Benjamin, a Nuremberg prosecutor, established the Planethood Foundation in 1996 to "replace the law of force with the force of law." The Foundation focuses primarily on the fight against impunity for suspected war criminals. Ferencz holds a B.A. in Peace Studies from Colgate University, a Master's in Education from the State University of New York at Cortland, and a J.D. and M.B.A. from Pace University. He is currently a visiting professor at Middlesex University School of Law in London.


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James Gibson is the Sidney W. Souers Professor of Government and Director of the Program on Citizenship and Democratic Values at the Weidenbaum Center on the Economy, Government, and Public Policy at Washington University in St. Louis. His research interests include judicial behavior and process, trial courts and criminal justice, constitutional law and civil liberties, and South African politics. Currently, Professor Gibson is researching the Cambodian public's reaction to the trials of the Khmer Rouge. He is author of the award-winning Overcoming Apartheid: Can Truth Reconcile a Divided Nation? (Russell Sage Foundation Publications, 2006), which investigates the hypothesis that truth led to reconciliation in post-apartheid South African society. Professor Gibson has published over 100 books, refereed articles, and chapters, including Overcoming Historical Injustices: Land Reconciliation in South Africa (Cambridge University, 2009), Citizens, Courts, and Confirmations: Positivity Theory and the Judgments of the American People (with Gregory A. Caldeira; Princeton University Press, 2009), and Overcoming Intolerance in South Africa: Experiments in Democratic Persuasion (with Amanda Gouws; Cambridge University Press, 2004). Professor Gibson is Professor Extraordinary in Political Science at Stellenbosch University in South Africa. In August, 2011, he received the American Political Science Association's Life Time Achievement Award in the Law and Courts Section, honoring a distinguished career of scholarly achievement. He holds a B.A. from Emory University and an M.A. and Ph.D. in Political Science from the University of Iowa.

Mala Htun is Associate Professor of Political Science at the University of New Mexico. Her research interests are Latin American politics and international comparative politics, with a specific focus on gender, race, and ethnicity. Professor Htun is the author of Sex and the State: Abortion, Divorce, and the Family under Latin American Dictatorships and Democracies (Cambridge University Press, 2003), in which she analyzes the effects and social implications of gender-related policy reform in Argentina, Brazil, and Chile. Among her most recent publications are "Gender, Parties, and Support for Equal Rights in the Brazilian Congress" in Latin American Politics and Society (with Tim Power; 2006), "Gender Equality in Transition Politics: Comparative Perspectives on Cuba" in Looking Forward: Cuba's Democratic Transition (ed. Marifeli Pérez-Stable; University of Notre Dame Press, 2007), and "Is Gender Like Ethnicity? The Political Representation of Identity Groups," in Perspectives on Politics (2004), for which she won the Heinz Eulau Award from the American Political Science Association. Professor Htun was a National Science Foundation award recipient for her project titled "Collaborative Research. States and Sex Equality: Why do Governments Promote Women's Rights?" Additionally, she has been a fellow at the Radcliffe Institute at Harvard University and the Kellogg Institute at the University of Notre Dame, and received the Council on Foreign Relations International Affairs Fellowship in Japan. Professor Htun holds a B.A. from Stanford University and a Ph.D. in Political Science from Harvard University.

Clifford Carrubba is Associate Professor of Political Science and Director of the Center for the Study of Law, Politics, and Economics at Emory University. He specializes in the study of comparative legislative and judicial politics, comparative institutions, the European Union, and game theory. Professor Carrubba's current research includes studies of legislative behavior and roll call vote analysis, design and change of judicial institutions, and statistical tests of game theory models. His published works investigate coalition formation, legislative design, public opinion formation, and the European Court of Justice. Professor Carrubba is an award-winning author whose works appear in various political science journals including the British Journal of Political Science, the American Journal of Political Science, International Organization, Comparative Political Studies, and the Journal of Politics. His recent publications include "A Theory of Opinion Writing in the Judicial Hierarchy" in Journal of Politics (with Tom S. Clark; 2012), The Limits of Judicial Independence (Cambridge University Press, 2011), "Locating Supreme Court Opinions in 'Doctrine Space'" in American Journal of Political Science (with Benjamin Lauderdale; 2012), and "Who Controls the Content of Supreme Court Power?" in American Journal of Political Science (with Barry Friedman, Andrew D. Martin, and Georg Vanberg; 2011). He was awarded the Outstanding Reviewer Award by Political Research Quarterly in 2008. Prior to joining the faculty at Emory University, Professor Carrubba taught at SUNY-Stonybrook. He earned a B.A. from Duke University and a Ph.D. in Business from Stanford University.

Matthew Gabel is Professor and Associate Chair of the Department of Political Science at Washington University in St. Louis. His research interests include European politics, cross-national studies of judicial politics, public opinion and mass behavior, and, most recently, American medical policy and decision-making. Professor Gabel is the author of Interests and Integration: Market Liberalization, Public Opinion, and European Union (University of Michigan Press, 1998), in which he analyzes the challenges of creating pan-European political institutions and a unified European currency. Professor Gabel's other recent publications include "Judicial Behavior Under Political Constraints" in American Political Science Review (2008) and "Estimating the Effect of Elite Communications on Public Opinion Using Instrumental Variables " in American Journal of Political Science (with Kenneth Scheve; 2007). His interests recently have turned toward medical policy and decision-making. In this field he has published "Validation of Consensus Panel Diagnosis in Dementia" and "Temporoparietal Hypometabolism in Frontotemporal Lobar Degeneration and Associated Imaging Diagnostic Errors," both published in Archives of Neurology (2010-2011). He received the John Simon Guggenheim Fellowship, and was named a Fulbright Foundation Senior Specialist and a Robert Wood Johnson Scholar in Health Policy. Professor Gabel holds a B.A. from Trinity University, two M.A.s in Political Science and Advanced European Studies from the University of Rochester and the College of Europe, respectively, and a Ph.D. in Political Science from the University of Rochester.

Jonathan Miller is Professor of Law at the Southwestern Law School. An internationally recognized scholar on Latin American legal institutions, his research focuses on Argentine constitutional law and civil liberties law. He is author of numerous casebooks and articles in both English and Spanish, most recently "Transplants, Legal Exports As," in Encyclopedia of Law and Society: American and Global Perspectives (ed. David C. Clark; Sage Publications, 2007), "Inter-American Law," in International Legal Developments in Review (co-editor with Meaghan McGrath Beaumont, 2004), and "A Typology of Legal Transplants: Using Sociology, Legal History and Argentine Examples to Explain the Transplant Process," in The American Journal of Comparative Law (Fall 2003). A Fulbright Scholar, Jervey Fellow from Columbia's Parker School of Comparative and International Law, as well as recipient of a grant from the J. Roderick McArthur Foundation, Professor Miller taught at the University of Buenos Aires and worked at the Argentine Supreme Court. He served as a consultant for Lexis/Nexis on establishing online legal research systems in Argentina and Chile as well as completed pro bono activities representing victims of human rights violations by the Argentine military government of 1976-83. He was decorated as an "Oficial de la Orden de Mayo" by the Argentine government in 2008 for his work on behalf of Victor Saldaño, an Argentine citizen on the Texas death row. Professor Miller holds a B.A. and a J.D. from Columbia University.


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Inderpal Grewal is a Professor and Chair of Women's, Gender, and Sexuality Studies at Yale University with joint appointments in American Studies and Anthropology. Her primary research interests include the relationship between gender and globalization, transnational and postcolonial feminist theories, civil society and non-governmental organizations, and citizenship and diaspora. Professor Grewal often focuses her work within the context of South Asian cultural studies and is currently undertaking a book project entitled The Gender of Security based on relations between gender, the state, security, and feminisms in contemporary India and the United States. She is the author of several books including an introduction to the field of transnational feminist studies in Scattered Hegemonies: Postmodernity and Transnational Feminist Practices (ed. with Caren Kaplan; University of Minnesota Press, 1994), a study of narratives and discourses of travel in Home and Harem: Nation, Gender, Empire and the Cultures of Travel (Duke University Press, 1996), an anthology on women's studies designed for undergraduate students entitled Gender in a Transnational World: Introduction to Women's and Gender Studies (ed. with Caren Kaplan; McGraw Hill, 2001, 2005), and, most recently, an examination of discourses surrounding transnational subjects in Transnational America: Feminisms, Diasporas, Neoliberalisms (Duke University Press, 2005). Professor Grewal actively works in several editorial and advisory capacities, most notably in service to Women's Studies Quarterly, Sikh Formations, Jouvert: Journal of Postcolonial Studies, and Meridians: feminisms, race, transnationalism. Prior to assuming her current position, Professor Grewal taught at the University of California-Irvine, where she served as Director of Women's Studies and launched the Ph.D. Program in Culture and Theory. She holds an M.A. from Punjab University and a Ph.D. in English from the University of California at Berkeley.

Catalina Smulovitz is the Director of the Department of Political Science and International Relations at the Universidad Torcuato Di Tella in Buenos Aires, Argentina. Professor Smulovitz's research interests include human rights, the rule of law, democratic governance, judicial mobilization, and domestic violence. Her work primarily focuses on Latin America with an emphasis on Argentina. Among her most notable publications are "Guarding the Guardians in Argentina: Some Lessons about the Risks and Benefits of Empowering the Courts," in Transitional Justice and the Rule of Law in New Democracies (with Carlos Acuña, ed. James McAdams; University of Notre Dame Press, 1997), "Citizen Insecurity and Fear: Public and Private Responses in the Case of Argentina," in Crime and Violence in Latin America: Citizen Security, Democracy, and the State (ed. Hugu Fruhling et al.; Johns Hopkins University Press, 2003), and "Societal and Horizontal Controls: Two Cases about a Fruitful Relationship," in Accountability, Democratic Governance, and Political Institutions in Latin America (ed. Scott Mainwaring and Christopher Welna, Oxford University Press, 2003). She is the editor (with Enrique Peruzzotti) of Enforcing the Rule of Law: Citizens and the Media in Latin America (Pittsburgh University Press, 2006). She has served as a Visiting Professor at Brown International Advanced Research Institutes (BIARI) of Brown University and in the Political Science Department at the University of Pennsylvania. In 2008, Professor Smulovitz was awarded a prestigious Guggenheim Fellowship, an award that recognizes mid-career intellectuals with exceptional and productive scholarship as well as substantial contributions to the arts. She holds an undergraduate degree in Sociology from Universidad del Salvador-Buenos Aires and an M.A. and Ph.D. in Political Science from Pennsylvania State University.

Tara J. Melish is an Associate Professor of Law and Director of the Human Rights Center at the State University of New York at Buffalo Law School. Professor Melish's research interests include comparative approaches to the protection of economic, social, and cultural rights. She also takes part in litigation and reporting efforts before the United Nations and Inter-American human rights bodies. Several of her most significant publications include "The Inter-American Court of Human Rights: Beyond Progressivity" and "The Inter-American Commission on Human Rights: Defending Social Rights Through Case-Based Petitions" in Social Rights Jurisprudence: Emerging Trends in Comparative and International Law (with Malcolm Langford; Cambridge University Press, 2008), "The UN Disability Convention: Historic Process, Strong Prospects, and Why the U.S. Should Ratify" in the Human Rights Brief (2007), "Rethinking the 'Less as More' Thesis: Supranational Litigation of Economic, Social and Cultural Rights in the Americas," in the New York University Journal of International Law and Politics (2006), and "Maximum Feasible Participation of the Poor: New Governance, New Accountability, and a 21st Century War on the Sources of Poverty," in the Yale Human Rights and Development Law Journal (2010). Professor Melish has previously worked in the UN Department of Economic and Social Affairs at the UN Secretariat and served as Editor-in-Chief of the Yale Human Rights and Development Law Journal. In addition, Professor Melish received multiple fellowships from the MacArthur Foundation, the Fulbright Foundation, and Yale Law School. She has also contributed as a visiting assistant professor of law at the University of Notre Dame. Professor Melish graduated with a J.D. from Yale Law School and an undergraduate degree from Brown University.

John D. Ciorciari is an Assistant Professor of Public Policy at the Gerald R. Ford School of Public Policy at the University of Michigan at Ann Arbor. His research interests include international politics, law, and finance as well as human rights, with a specific focus on Asia. Professor Ciorciari is the author of The Limits of Alignment: Southeast Asia and the Great Powers since 1975 (Georgetown University Press, 2010), in which he examines shifting power alignments to protect security interests among states in Southeast Asia. In addition to publishing several articles, he has also organized numerous edited volumes which include an examination of tribunals designed to facilitate the prosecution of surviving Khmer Rouge officials in The Khmer Rouge Tribunal (Documentation Center of Cambodia, 2006), a collection of essays and previously unpublished photos concerning the Khmer Rouge Tribunal process entitled On Trial: The Khmer Rouge Accountability Process (with Anne Heindel; Documentation Center of Cambodia, 2009), and, most recently, The Road Ahead for the Fed (with John Taylor; Hoover Institution Press, 2009), an account of recent actions and decisions of the Federal Reserve as well as policy prescriptions for the institution. Prior to joining the University of Michigan, he served as a National Fellow at the Hoover Institution and a Shorenstein Fellow at the Shorenstein Asia-Pacific Research Center at Stanford University. Professor Ciorciari continues to serve in a pro-bono capacity as a Senior Legal Advisor at the Documentation Center of Cambodia (DC-Cam). He received his A.B. in Biochemistry and J.D. from Harvard University and an MPhil. and Ph.D. in International Relations from Oxford University.

Henry J. Steiner is an Emeritus Jeremiah Smith, Jr. Professor of Law at Harvard University. His research interests concern issues of human rights and international law. He is the founder of the Human Rights Program (HRP) at Harvard Law School, a nearly thirty-year-old program dedicated to incorporating students, faculty, and human rights organizations into the study of international human rights through applied research, regular speaker series, as well as conferences and reports. Professor Steiner is the author of several books and reports including, most recently, International Human Rights in Context: Law, Politics, Morals (with Ryan Goodman and Philip Alston; Oxford University Press, 2007), an interdisciplinary course book designed to provide an overview of issues related to international law and the human rights movement and to incorporate, in the most recent edition, a substantive focus on contemporary issues associated with terrorism, national security, and the influence of international actors on state behavior; two case books, Transnational Legal Problems (with Detlev Vagts and Harold Hongju Koh; Foundation Press, 1994) and Tort and Accident Law (with Page R. Keeton and L. Sargentich); a report entitled Diverse Partners: Non-Governmental Organizations in the Human Rights Movement (Human Rights Program, 1991), which was developed from a retreat coordinated by the HRP and Human Rights Internet and concerns the potential contributions and liabilities associated with non-governmental organizational alliance with human rights movements; and Moral Argument and Social Vision in the Courts (University of Wisconsin Press, 1987), in which he examines, through a discussion of accident law, the structure of existing common law and potentials for legal innovation. He received his B.A. in Modern European History and Literature, M.A. in International Affairs, and LL.B. all from Harvard University.

Jorge Contesse is a professor and Director of the Center for Human Rights at the Universidad Diego Portales in Chile, and will be a Visiting Resource Professor at the University of Texas in spring 2012. He works on human rights and indigenous issues, primarily focusing on the Mapuche community in Chile. Contesse has also been a researcher and consultant to various international organizations, such as the International Council on Human Rights Policy and Human Rights Watch. He has directed research projects focusing on indigenous populations, including a co-sponsored project by Harvard University, Columbia University, the University of Miami, and Universidad de los Andes (Colombia). He also serves as editor of an annual report of human rights in Chile. His recent works include "Universally Speaking? The Cultural Challenge to Rights and Constitutionalism," "'It's Not OK': New Zealand's Efforts to Eliminate Violence against Women," and "The Rebel Democracy: A Look Into the Relationship Between the Mapuche People and the Chilean State." He is a recipient of the Fulbright Scholarship and Presidente de la Republica scholarship from Chile. Contesse received an LL.M. from Yale Law School.

Benjamin Gregg is an Associate Professor of Government at the University of Texas at Austin. His research interests include social integration in complex modern societies, problems and prospects of contemporary forms of justice, coping with value pluralism, deploying contemporary sociological theory to solve problems in political philosophy, and the social, legal, and political consequences of the human species taking control of its genome. Professor Gregg is currently undertaking two book-length projects. Second Nature: The Genetic Self-Transformation of the Human Species raises and answers philosophical questions prompted in the advent of the unprecedented prospect of genetically manipulating human beings. The Human-Rights State proposes an alternative vehicle for recognizing and enforcing human rights based on positive law, a "human-rights state," in distinction to the sovereignty-fixated nation-state. In addition to his current projects, Professor Gregg has authored a number of publications, including most recently Human-Rights as Social Construction (Cambridge University Press, 2012), as well as translated and reviewed the works of other scholars. Professor Gregg received the Silver Spurs Fellowship from the College of Liberal Arts at the University of Texas at Austin in 1999 for outstanding scholarship and teaching and a research fellowship from the Friedrich Naumann Foundation in 2008. In 2012, he received a faculty research travel award from The Center for European Studies for archival research at the Federal Commission for Documents of the State Security Service of the former German Democratic Republic. He also contributed as a guest professor at Europa Universität Viadrina in 2009 and 2012. He earned a Ph.D. in Politics from Princeton University and a Ph.D. in Philosophy from the Free University of Berlin.


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Claudia Briones is Professor and Director of the Graduate and Postgraduate Program in the School of Humanities and Social Sciences at the National University of Rio Negro (UNRN) in Argentina. She is also coordinator of the Anthropological Science degree program, and is a senior researcher at the National Council for Scientific Research. Briones is a leading scholar in anthropology and indigenous studies in Argentina and has researched and written widely on the Mapuche Indians in Chile and Argentina, specifically in the context of cultural politics and communal identity. Her recent publications include The "Conquest of the Desert" as Trope and Enactment of Argentina's Manifest Destiny (with W. Delrio); Argentina: Contagious Marginalities (with Rosana Guber); and Our Struggle Has Just Begun: Experiences of Belonging and Mapuche Formations of Self. Dr. Briones received a Ph.D. in Anthropology from the University of Texas, where she was a Fulbright Commission Argentina Doctoral Fellow.

Judith Kimerling is a Professor of Law and Policy at The City University of New York, with a joint appointment at CUNY Law School and Queens College. Professor Kimerling's research focuses on the environmental and social impact of oil development in the Amazon rainforest. In addition to working directly with indigenous populations, she has also served as an environmental litigator and as an Assistant Attorney General for New York State. Her book Amazon Crude (Natural Resources Defense Council, 1991) had a significant impact on both international environmental and human rights policy agendas and prompted a well-known class action lawsuit, Aguinda v. Texaco, Inc. Her recent publications include "Transnational Operations, Bi-National Injustice: Indigenous Amazonian Peoples and Ecuador, ChevronTexaco, and Aguinda v. Texaco" (L'Observateur des Nations Unies, 2008); "Transnational Operations, Bi-National Injustice: ChevronTexaco and Indigenous Huaorani and Kichwa in  the Amazon Rainforest in Ecuador" ( American Indian Law Review, 2007); "Indigenous Peoples and the Oil Frontier in Amazonia: The Case of Ecuador, ChevronTexaco and Aguinda v. Texaco" (New York University Journal of International Law and Politics, 2006); and ¿Modelo o Mito? Tecnología de punta y normas internacionales en los campos petroleros de la Occidental (Ediciones Abya Yala and FLACSO Ecuador, 2006). Professor Kimerling received The Field Museum's 2007 Parker/Gentry Award, has been a Visiting Scholar at Yale Law School, and received a Special Achievement Award from Rainforest Action Network and a Feliks Gross Endowment Award for Outstanding Scholarly Achievement from CUNY Academy for Humanities and Sciences. She holds a J.D. from Yale Law School and a B.A. from the University of Michigan.

Julie Mertus is a professor at American University (AU) in the School of International Service and is Co-Director of the MA Program in Ethics, Peace, and Global Affairs. Her work focuses on human rights, gender, conflict, U.S. foreign policy, and transitional justice. Drawing on 25 years of experience working with a host of governmental and nongovernmental human rights organizations, Professor Julie Mertus explains the many mistakes and the few successes in two decades of human rights advocacy. She is the author of Bait and Switch: Human Rights and U.S. Foreign Policy (Routledge, 2004), which was named "human rights book of the year" by the American Political Science Association. Most recently, she has published Human Rights Matters: Local Politics and National Human Rights Institutions (Stanford University Press, 2009). Other notable publications include Human Rights and Conflict (United States Institute of Peace, 2006); "Is it True That a Human Rights Culture, Respectful of Minorities, is Impossible in Kosova?" (Anthem Press, 2006); United Nations and Human Rights: A Guide for a New Era (Taylor and Francis, 2005); and War's Offensive on Women: The Humanitarian Challenge in Bosnia, Kosovo and Afghanistan (Kumarian Press, 2000). Professor Mertus received the AU School of International Service (SIS) Faculty Award for Outstanding Scholarship and Professional Service in 2006 and 2002, the AU Scholar/Teacher of the Year Award in 2005, and the AU SIS Faculty Award for Outstanding Curriculum Development in 2003. She has served as a human rights fellow at Harvard Law School, as a Fulbright Association Senior Scholar, and as a U.S. Institute of Peace Senior Fellow. She holds a J.D. from Yale Law School and a B.S. from Cornell University.

Daniel M. Brinks is an Associate Professor at the Department of Government at the University of Texas.  Professor Brinks’s research focuses on law and human rights in Latin America, as well as in comparative politics in Latin America, particularly Argentina, Brazil and Uruguay. He is especially interested in the role of the law and courts in supporting or extending the rights associated with democracy in Latin America, the use of courts and law to enforce social and economic rights in the developing world, judicial independence, the role of informal norms in the legal order, and the global diffusion of democracy in the last quarter of a century. His recent publications include Courting Social Justice: Judicial Enforcement of Social and Economic Rights in the Developing World (Cambridge University Press, 2010)( ed. with Varun Gauri) Judicial Response to Police Killings in Latin America: Inequality and the Rule of Law (Cambridge University Press, 2008); “Diffusion Is No Illusion: Neighbor Emulation in the Third Wave of Democracy”, Comparative Political Studies (2006) (with Michael Coppedge); and “Classifying Political Regimes in Latin America, 1945-2004”, in Regimes and Democracy in Latin America: theories and methods (Gerardo Luis Munck ed.) (Oxford University Press, 2007) (with Scott Mainwaring and Aníbal Pérez-Liñán). Dan Brinks is also the Faculty Advisor for the Graduate Concentration in Human Rights and Latin American Studies at the University of Texas, and an affiliated faculty member of the Rapoport Center. He holds a Ph.D. from the University of Notre Dame, a JD from the University of Michigan Ann Arbor and an AB from Calvin College.

Paola Bergallo is a professor at the Universidad de San Andrés in Buenos Aires, Argentina.  Her research interests center on feminist critiques of the law, socio-legal theory and constitutional and human rights issues.  Professor Bergallo held Fellowships at Hewlett Foundation (2003-04) and Stanford University (2004-05), and has been a Professor of Law at the University of Palermo and the University of Buenos Aires (2000-2006).  Her recent publications include “Género y Trabajo” [“Gender and Labor”] (with Natalia Gherardi), in La Mirada de los Jueces [“The Judges’ Eyes”] (Red Alas – Proyecto Ford, Editorial Siglo del Hombre Editores, 2008), “Apuntes sobre justicia y experimentalismo en los remedios frente al litigio de derecho público” [“Notes on justice and experimentalism in public law remedies”], Revista Jurisprudencia Argentina (Buenos Aires, 2006), and “Equidad de Género: Perspectivas para su Exigibilidad Judicial” [“Gender Equality: Perspectives on Judicial Enforceability”], in La Aplicación de los Tratados de Derechos Humanos en el Ambito Local [“The Local Application of Human Rights Treaties”] (Victor Abramovich, Alberto Bobino and Christian Courtis eds.), (Centro de Estudios Legales y Sociales, Buenos Aires, 2006).  Professor Bergallo served as a researcher and consultant in projects of the Centro de Estudios de Estado y Sociedad (CEDES), the Center for Reproductive Rights, the UN Fund for Population (UNFPA) and the Pan-American Health Organization (PAHO) on gender and law, women human rights and sexual and reproductive rights.   She is a founding member of Red Alas, Red de Académicas Latinoamericanas, a network which aims to reform Latin American legal education from a gender and sexuality perspective. In addition to an LL.B. with honors earned from the Universidad de Buenos Aires (1994), Professor Bergallo also holds a Masters of Law Degree from Columbia University (2000) and has completed a Masters in Legal Research (2003) from Stanford University where she is a J.S.D. candidate.

Samera Esmeir is an assistant professor in the Rhetoric Department at the University of California, Berkeley.  Her present research focuses on British rule in Egypt, particularly on the role played by imperial colonialism in the constitution of “universal humanity” and in the ways in which the human became inscribed within the teleology of modern law.  Professor Esmeir’s research interests also span issues around violence, war and the security state in regards to the contemporary Middle East, and legal history, including the colonial histories of “comparative law” and the legal history of treason in Israel.  In addition to a forthcoming book based on her historical study of colonial Egypt, her recent publications include “The Violence of non-Violence: Law and War in Iraq” (Journal of Law and Society, March 2007), “On Making Dehumanization Possible” (PMLA: The Journal of Modern Languages Association, October 2006), “In the Name of Security: Introduction” (Adalah’s Review, 2004), and “1948: History, Memory, Law” (Social Text 75, Summer 2003).  Professor Esmeir received a Ph.D. in Law and Society from New York University.  She has worked as a lawyer and co-founded and co-edited Adalah’s Review, a sociolegal journal published in Arabic, Hebrew and English, focusing on Palestinian rights in Israel.

Varun Gauri is a Senior Economist in the Development Research Group of the World Bank. His research focuses on politics and governance in the social sectors, and aims to combine quantitative and qualitative methods in economics and social science research. He is leading research projects on the impact of legal strategies to claim economic and social rights, and on the impact of international laws and norms on development outcomes. His recent publications include Courting Social Justice: Judicial Enforcement of Social and Economic Rights in the Developing World (Cambridge University Press 2008) (editor, with Dan Brinks); "Boundary Institutions and HIV/AIDS Policy in Brazil and South Africa", Studies in Comparative International Development (2006) (with E. Lieberman); "Will more Inputs Improve the Delivery of Health Services? – Analysis of District Vaccination Coverage in Pakistan", International Journal of Health Planning and Management (2006) (with B. Loevinsohn and R. Hong); and "Human Rights and Health Systems", in Public Health and Human Rights, Evidence-Based Approaches (C. Beyrer ed.) (Johns Hopkins University Press, 2007) (with C. Beyrer and D. Vaillancourt). Since joining the World Bank in 1996, he has worked on and led a variety of operational tasks in the World Bank, including operational evaluations, investments in privately owned hospitals in Latin America, a social sector adjustment loan to Brazil, several health care projects in Brazil, a study of the decentralization of health care in Nigeria, and was a core team member of the 2007 World Development Report. He received his Ph.D. in Public Policy from Princeton University in 1996, and an M.P.A. also from Princeton in 1992.

Karen Knop is a professor in the Faculty of Law at the University of Toronto.  Her research focuses on public and private international law, issues of interpretation, identity and participation.  In addition to being a Visiting Fellow at the School of Law, University of Nottingham, and teaching at the University of Melbourne Law School, Professor Knop has also been a senior fellow at the Center for International Studies, New York University School of Law, and is presently a visiting professor in the Georgetown University Law Center.  Her book Diversity and Self-Determination in International Law (Cambridge: Cambridge University Press, 2002) won a Certificate of Merit from the American Society of International Law in April 2003.  She is the editor of Gender and Human Rights (Oxford University Press, 2004) and co-editor of Rethinking Federalism: Citizens, Markets and Governments in a changing World (University of British Columbia Press, 1995).  Professor Knop served as rapporteur for the International Law Association's Committee on Feminism and International Law, and was responsible for the ILA's report on gender and nationality (2000).  In addition to serving on the Executive Council of the American Society of International Law, she is a member of the Board of Directors of the Canadian Council on International Law.  She received graduate degrees in law from Toronto and Columbia, and degrees in law and mathematics from Dalhousie.

Thomas Pogge is the Leitner Professor of Philosophy and International Affairs at Yale University. His research focuses on theoretical approaches to international justice, particularly economic and social justice. He is also conducting research under an European Union Seventh Framework Grant (2008-11), called “Pharma Innovation Innova-P2,” an international collaboration of seven partner institutions toward fully developing and specifying the Health Impact Fund as a complement to the patent system for pharmaceuticals. His most recent publications include Politics as Usual: What Lies behind the Pro-Poor Rhetoric (Polity Press 2010); Kant, Rawls and Global Justice (Shanghai Translation Publishing House 2010) (in Chinese); and World Poverty and Human Rights: Cosmopolitan Responsibilities and Reforms (Polity Press, 2nd ed. 2008). He is also the Research Director of the Center for the Study of Mind in Nature at the University of Oslo, a Member of the Scientific Committee of the Comparative Research Program on Poverty, and an editor of numerous journals and other publications, including the Stanford Encyclopedia of Philosophy. He received a Diploma in Sociology from the University of Hamburg and a Ph.D. in philosophy from Harvard University.

Lora Wildenthal is an associate professor of History and chair of the History Department at Rice University in Houston, Texas.  Her areas of interest include modern Germany, European women, human rights and modern colonialism. Her current research examines what causes West Germans have considered to be “human rights” causes, and why West Germany had the kinds of human rights activists and experts that it did. Previously, she worked on how German women participated in Europe’s most intense period of imperial expansion, and how ideas of race in the colonial context implicated white German women. Wildenthal teaches courses on world history, modern Europe, the history of human rights, Nazi and post-1945 German history, nationalism, and the history of women, gender and feminism in Europe and around the world. She is currently completing a book to be entitled The Language of Human Rights in West Germany, which seeks to meet a need for studies of human rights activism that are closely contextualized in their domestic settings. Professor Wildenthal’s recent publications include “Human Rights Activism in Occupied and Early West Germany:  The Case of the German League for Human Rights” (Journal of Modern History, September 2008), and German Women for Empire, 1884-1945 (Duke University Press, 2001). She received her Ph.D. from the University of Michigan, and joined the faculty at Rice in 2003 after teaching at Pitzer College, M.I.T., and Texas A&M University.


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Adeno Addis is the William Ray Forrester Professor of Public and Constitutional Law at Tulane University. Professor Addis was born in Ethiopia and received undergraduate and graduate degrees in Australia and the United States, respectively. He has published extensively in the areas of constitutional law, communications law, jurisprudence and public international law. Recent publications include “Imagining the International Community: The Constitutive Dimension of Universal Jurisdiction” ( Human Rights Quarterly , 2009), “Deliberative Democracy in Severely Fractured Societies” ( Indiana Journal of Global Legal Studies , 2009) and “Informal Suspension of Normal Processes: The ‘War on Terror' as an Autoimmunity Crisis,” ( Boston University Law Review, 2007). Professor Addis has served on the Executive Council of the American Society of International Law and is also a member of the American Society for Political and Legal Philosophy. He is on the advisory board of a number of scholarly journals, including Human Rights and the Global Economy .

Elizabeth Bartholet is the Morris Wasserstein Public Interest Professor of Law at Harvard Law School, and Faculty Director of the Child Advocacy Program which she founded in the fall of 2004.  She teaches civil rights and family law, specializing in child welfare, adoption and reproductive technology. Before joining the Harvard faculty, she was engaged in civil rights and public interest work, first with the NAACP Legal Defense Fund, and later as founder and director of the Legal Action Center, a non-profit organization in New York City focused on criminal justice and substance abuse issues. She has authored numerous articles as well as two books, Nobody's Children: Abuse and Neglect, Foster Drift, and the Adoption Alternative (1999) and Family Bonds: Adoption, Infertility, and the New World of Child Production (1999). Her recent work advocates considering adoption from a human rights perspective, and calls attention to racial and cultural barriers to international adoption that she argues affect children's welfare. Bartholet's work has figured prominently in the national media, and she has won several awards for her writing and her related advocacy work in the area of adoption and child welfare.

Lisa Hajjar is Associate Professor and Department Chair of Law and Society at the University of California, Santa Barbara. Her main research interest is torture, along with war and conflict, and other forms of violence. She began her academic career working on the Israeli military court system in the West Bank and Gaza. Since 9/11, that background has provided Hajjar with good preparation to focus on the “war on terror.” She is currently writinig a book that analyzes the roles that lawyers have played in contesting the “legalization” of torture by the Bush administration, and their ongoing efforts to re-delegitimize the odious practice. Her subjects include military, human rights and private practice lawyers who have been involved, in various ways, in representing detainees or bringing suits to challenge policies and practices that violate international and federal laws.

Cecilia Medina is immediate past-president of the Inter-American Court of Human Rights of the Organization of American States. She also co-directs the Human Rights Center at the University of Chile in Santiago, where she is a professor of international human rights law. She earned her doctorate in law at the University of Utrecht, The Netherlands. She has taught at Lund University, the International Institute of Human Rights, the University of Toronto, the United Nations University for Peace, the University of Utrecht, and Harvard University, and has published extensively on human rights law in the Inter-American System and women's rights. Medina is the former chair of the United Nations Human Rights Committee, where she served between 1995 and 2002. In 2006, the United Nations Human Rights Council selected her for the group of independent experts assigned to investigate the November 2006 Beit Hanoun incident. She has also served as a judge for the Rapoport Center's Audre Rapoport Prize for Scholarship on Gender and Human Rights.

Murhabazi Namegabe heads the child and youth programmes for the Congolese NGO — Bureau pour le Volontariat au Sevice de l’Enfance et de la Santé (Volunteer Office in the Service of Children and Health or BVES). Through BVES, Dr. Namegabe promotes the rights of children affected by armed conflict and supports grassroots organizations in monitoring, documenting, and reporting on children's rights violations in eastern Congo. Dr. Namegabe's risky and difficult negotiations with armed rebels to release conscripted children and to cease armed conflict have steadily and quietly improved the lives of thousands. Due to his careful documentation and advocacy, child recruitment is now a crime under Congolese military and national law. In the fall 2009, he will receive the Oscar Romero Award from The Rothko Chapel in Houston, Texas. Read more here.

Eduardo Restrepo is Professor of Anthropology at Pontificia Universidad Javeriana in Bogotá, Colombia. He received his undergraduate degree from the University of Antioquia and his Ph.D. in anthropology from the University of North Carolina. Professor Restrepo is a leading thinker in cultural studies in Colombia and has researched and written extensively on Afro-descendant social movements and cultural identity in Colombia, particularly in the Pacific Basin region. Restrepo has received numerous awards and scholarships for his scholarly work, including a research grant from the Rockefeller Foundation, the Honigmann Award from the University of North Carolina, and first place in the National Prize of Greiff Otto in Social and Economic Sciences.

Gillian Slovo is a South African born novelist, the daughter of Joe Slovo, leader of the South African Communist party, and Ruth First, a journalist who was murdered in 1982. She has lived in England since 1964, working as a writer, journalist and film producer. Her first novel, Morbid Symptoms (1984), began a crime fiction series featuring female detective Kate Baeier. Her other novels include Ties of Blood (1989), The Betrayal (1991) and Red Dust (2000), a courtroom drama set in contemporary South Africa, which explores the effects of the Truth and Reconciliation Commission. Every Secret Thing: My Family, My Country (1997) is a moving account of her childhood in South Africa and her relationship with her parents, both heavily involved in the anti-apartheid movement. Ice Road (2004), set in Leningrad in 1933, explores an Arctic winter in Stalin's Russia; family ties, love and loyalty are all tested to the limits, uncovering the dark effects of Soviet communism on the human spirit. It was shortlisted for the 2004 Orange Prize for Fiction. Slovo's most recent novel is Black Orchids (2008), about a Sinhalese family who move to England in the 1950s.

Sarah Snyder is Cassius Marcellus Clay Fellow in the History Department at Yale University. She received her Ph.D. from Georgetown University in 2006 and specializes in transnational, international, transatlantic, and diplomatic history. She earned a M.A. from the University College London in 2000 and a B.A. with honors from Brown University in 1999. She previously served as the Pierre Keller Post Doctoral Fellow in Transatlantic Relations at the Whitney and Betty MacMillan Center for International and Area Studies at Yale and as a Professorial Lecturer at Georgetown. While the Keller Fellow, she worked on a manuscript analyzing the development of a transnational network devoted to human rights advocacy and its significant contributions to the end of the Cold War. As a Clay Fellow, Dr. Snyder researches United States human rights policy during the Cold War.

María Victoria Uribe, an anthropologist from Colombia, currently works for the Historical Memory group of the Colombian National Commission of Reparations and Reconciliation, and is a consultant for the International Center for Transitional Justice.  She was former director of the Colombian Institute of Anthropology and History, part of the nation's Ministry of Culture.  Uribe's work focuses on symbolic and ritual aspects of violence, and she has published 7 books and over 20 academic articles in Colombian and international journals.


Charles Hale is Professor of Anthropology and Director of the Teresa Lozano Long Institute of Latin American Studies at The University of Texas. He is a member of the Steering Committee at the Rapoport Center and the immediate past President of the Latin American Studies Association. He has received research fellowships from the H.F. Guggenheim Foundation, the Social Science Research Council (SSRC), and the National Endowment for the Humanities. He is author of "Más que un indio …" Racial Ambivalence and Neoliberal Multiculturalism in Guatemala (2006) and Resistance and Contradiction: Miskitu Indians and the Nicaraguan State , 1894–1987 (1994). He also is author of numerous articles and co-editor of several collections on identity politics, racism, ethnic conflict, and the status of indigenous peoples in Latin America.


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Helena Alviar is Associate Professor and Director of the Doctorate and Master's in Law Programs at the Universidad de Los Andes in Bogotá, Colombia. She is also a researcher for the USAID-funded project, Improving Land Distribution in Colombia . Alviar received her undergraduate degree in Law and a postgraduate degree in Financial Legislation from the Universidad de Los Andes. She earned her Master's and Doctorate in Law from Harvard University. As an expert in feminist approaches to law and development, she has been invited to teach and speak to audiences around the world. She has published articles in the United States and Latin America, and has been awarded with the Colfuturo Scholarship, a Fulbright Fellowship, the Enrique Low Murtra Scholaship, the Lewis Fellowship, and the Byse Fellowship.

Susan Benesch is Visiting Professor at the University of Baltimore School of Law, Dean's Visiting Scholar at Georgetown University Law Center, and Senior Legal Advisor at the Center for Justice and Accountability. Professor Benesch earned a B.A. in history from Columbia College, winning high honors and the Henry Evans prize for scholarship in modern history. She received her J.D. from Yale Law School, where she was a member of the Prison Clinic, and a Team Leader for the Lowenstein International Human Rights Clinic. Also during law school, she served as law clerk in the Office of the Prosecutor at the International Criminal Tribunal for the Former Yugoslavia, split a summer between the Israeli Supreme Court and the Palestinian human rights group Mandela, and worked as a consultant to the Lawyers Committee for Human Rights (now Human Rights First). In 2000, Susan was awarded the Robert L. Bernstein fellowship in International Human Rights to work in the asylum program of the Lawyers Committee for Human Rights. She went on to Amnesty International USA, where she worked as Refugee Advocate and then directed the AIUSA Refugee Program, before coming to CALS. Between college and law school, she was a journalist abroad. She was chief staff writer in Haiti for the Miami Herald before, during and after the 1994 U.S. invasion, and has reported from countries including Nicaragua, El Salvador, Guatemala, Cuba, Brazil, and Russia for other newspapers and magazines. Her recent publications include “The Ever-Expanding Material Support Bar: An Unjust Obstacle for Refugees and Asylum. Seekers,” Interpreter Releases, Vol. 83, No. 11, at 466 (Mar. 13, 2006) (with Devon Chaffee); “Inciting Genocide, Pleading Free Speech” World Policy Journal, Summer 2004, at 62; “Friendly Settlement in Human Rights Cases,” in L.C. Vohrah et al (eds.), Man's Inhumanity to Man, Netherlands: Kluwer Law International, 2003 (with W. Michael Reisman); and “Effective Command,” Legal Affairs, Sept.-Oct. 2002.

Daniel Blocq is a Lieutenant in the Royal Netherlands Navy and served as a UN Military Observer for the UN Mission in the Sudan (UNMIS). During the six months that he spent in the Sudan, Lt. Blocq gained considerable insight into the factors that affect the success of UN Missions. He is currently a PhD candidate in Sociology at the University of Wisconsin, Madison. He earned degrees in International and European Law and in Tax Law from the University of Amsterdam, and received his Master's in Law from Cornell University. Lt. Blocq was an Assistant Professor at the Netherlands Defense Academy and a Part-time Legal Advisor at the Royal Netherlands Naval College. He has published works on asymmetrical warfare, the use of force by soldiers, the War on Terrorism, and UN peacekeeping, and has given lectures in England, Hungary, the Netherlands, and the US. He received research fellowships from the Netherlands and from Emory Law School, and was the recipient of the Commodore's Teaching Award.

Rhonda Evans Case graduated phi beta kappa from Kent State University's Honors College in 1992 with a B.A. in Political Science. In 1995, she received a J.D. from the University of Pittsburgh's School of Law and was admitted to the Bar in the State of Ohio, where she subsequently worked as an Assistant Prosecuting Attorney and a staff lawyer for Southeastern Ohio Legal Services. Evans Case received a Ph.D. from the Department of Government at the University of Texas at Austin in 2004, with concentrations in Public Law and Comparative Politics. Before accepting a position as an Assistant Professor in East Carolina University's Department of Political Science in 2006, she worked as a Visiting Assistant Professor at Claremont McKenna College. Evans Case has published in a variety of venues, including the Journal of Democracy, the Australian Journal of Political Science, the Journal of Common Market Studies, and Congress and the Presidency.

Kathleen Neal Cleaver is a Visiting Professor at the University of Texas School of Law. She has spent most of her life participating in the human rights struggle. She dropped out of Barnard College in 1966 to work full time with the Student Nonviolent Coordinating Committee (SNCC) where she served in the Campus Program. From 1967 to 1971 she was the Communications Secretary of the Black Panther Party, the first woman member of their Central Committee. After sharing years of exile with her former husband Eldridge Cleaver, she returned to the United States in late 1975. Devoting many years to challenging racist injustice, Cleaver has worked to free imprisoned freedom fighters, including Geronimo (Pratt) ji Jaga and Mumia Abu-Jamal. She graduated summa cum laude with a B.A. in History from Yale College in 1984, and was elected to Phi Beta Kappa. After receiving a J.D. from Yale Law School in 1989, Cleaver became an associate at the New York law firm of Cravath, Swaine and Moore. Kathleen Cleaver joined the faculty of Emory University Law School in 1992. Her writing has appeared in numerous magazines and newspapers, including Ramparts, The Black Panther, The Village Voice, The Boston Globe, and Transition, and she has contributed scholarly essays to the books Critical Race Feminism, Critical White Studies, The Promise of Multiculturalism, and The Black Panther Party Reconsidered. Along with George Katsificas, humanities professor at Wentworth Institute of Technology, she co-edited the essay collection Liberation, Imagination, and the Black Panther Party (Routledge, 2001). She recently edited a collection of writings by Eldridge Cleaver, Target Zero: A Life in Writing (Palgrave, 2006).

Dan Connell is a Distinguished Lecturer in Journalism and African Politics at Simmons College in Boston, MA. He received his B.A. in English from Hobart College and his Master's in English from the University at Buffalo. His previous experience includes working as a Middle East Projects Officer for Oxfam America, serving as Executive Director of Grassroots International, and reporting as an independent journalist and photographer. Professor Connell has consulted for a wide spectrum of organizations and events, including the State Department, the UN Conflict Prevention and Peace Forum, the U.S. Committee for Refugees, and Human Rights Watch. His knowledge and experiences led him to publish numerous books and articles on Africa, the plight of refugees, and conflict management. A two-time MacArthur Foundation grantee, Connell's recent books include Women-to-Women: Young Americans in South Africa, and Conversations with Eritrean Political Prisoners ., Professor Connell has been invited to lecture around the United States, in London, and in Eritrea, and has been interviewed by major networks and newspapers, including the New York Times, Washington Post, BBC, and CBS-TV's "Evening News".

Shirin Ebadi is a courageous and accomplished civil rights activist and lecturer in law at the University of Tehran. She was awarded the Nobel Peace Prize in 2003 for her pioneering efforts to advance democracy and human rights—especially the rights of women and children—in post-revolutionary Iran. Among the most visible and prominent women in the Islamic world, Ebadi first achieved distinction in the mid-1970s as the first woman judge to preside over a legislative court in Iran. Nearly thirty years later, she became the first Iranian, the first Shia, and the first Muslim woman to receive the Nobel Prize. A supporter of the 1979 Iranian Revolution, Ebadi nonetheless was stripped of her judgeship and of her license to practice law when conservative clerics prevailed in their interpretation of Islam as forbidding legal practice by women. Refusing to leave Iran, Ebadi raised a family and boldly fought for legal and human rights reform throughout the 1980s and, in 1992, succeeded in regaining her law license. A frequent defense counsel for Iranian liberals and dissidents and plaintiff's counsel for victims of civil and human rights abuses. Ebadi helped establish two non-governmental organizations in Iran, the Society for Protecting the Rights of the Child (SPRC) and the Defenders of Human Rights Center (DHRC), and drafted the original text of a law against physical abuse of children, which was passed by the Iranian parliament in 2002. She is the author of numerous books and articles—including two recent works for Western audiences, Democracy, Human Rights, and Islam and a moving and illuminating personal account of her experience of the Iranian Revolution, Iran Awakening: One Woman's Journey to Reclaim her Life and Country.

Roberto Gargarella is a professor of Constitutional Theory and Political Philosophy at the Universidad de Buenos Aires and at the Universidad Torcuato Di Tella. He received degrees in Law and Sociology from the Universidad de Buenos Aires, an Master's in Political Science from the Facultad Latinoamericana de Ciencias Sociales (FLACSO), and a J.D. and Master's in Law from the University of Chicago. He also conducted postdoctoral research at Balliol College, Oxford. Gargarella has authored and edited more than 25 books in English and Spanish on constitutional theory, political philosophy, and democratic law, with an emphasis on economic and social rights. He has been honored with numerous awards, including a Tinker Scholarship, a Fulbright Scholarship, a Harry Frank Guggenheim Fellowship, and a John Simon Guggenheim Fellowship. Selected as a LLILAS Visiting Resource Professor for fall 2008, Gargarella has also been a visiting professor at the University of Bergen, Southwestern University, University of Oslo, and the Universitat Pompeu Fabre, and a visiting scholar at Columbia University and New York University.

Benjamin Gregg is Associate Professor in the Department of Government at the University of Texas. He earned a B.A. from Yale, a Ph.D. in Philosophy from the Free University of Berlin, and a Ph.D. in Political Science from Princeton. Professor Gregg writes and teaches about modern European and American social and political theory. He is currently writing two books: a critical social theory of nationalism and communal identity in the twenty-first century titled Political Solidarity Without Nationalism, and a proposal for a new form of state sovereignty titled State-Based Human Rights for a State-Centric World. He regularly teaches in the Departments of Sociology and Philosophy. The College of Liberal Arts awarded him the 1999 Silver Spurs Fellowship for outstanding scholarship and teaching. His recent publications include: Thick Moralities, Thin Politics: Social Integration Across Communities of Belief (Duke University Press, 2003); Coping In Politics With Indeterminate Norms: A Theory of Enlightened Localism (SUNY Press, 2003); "Proceduralism Reconceived: Political Conflict Resolution under Conditions of Moral Pluralism," in Theory and Society (2002); "The Law and Courts of Enlightened Localism," in Polity (2002); "Using Legal Rules in an Indeterminate World: Overcoming the Limitations of Jurisprudence," in Political Theory (1999); and "Adjudicating Among Competing Systems of Belief," in International Review of Sociology (1999).

Gustavo Meoño is the Coordinator of the National Police Archives of Guatemala, and directs the project for the recuperation of these archives (PRAHPN, in Spanish). As the lead investigator on the archives for the national ombudsman's office, Meoño has been actively involved in both the preservation of the archive's documents and in collecting evidence from these documents to provide accounts of human rights abuses committed during the country's 36-year civil war. Meoño has served as president of the Rigoberta Menchú Tum Foundation (Fundación Rigoberta Menchú Tum), an organization based in Guatemala City that has played a crucial role in struggles against impunity for human rights violations related to prolonged armed conflict in the country.

The National Police Archives

The National Police Archives of Guatemala in Guatemala City, discovered accidentally in 2005, contain an estimated 80 million documents detailing violent conflict and human rights abuses in the country. Investigators with the national ombudsman's office found the archives in an old police building while searching for a munitions cache, and realized the files in the building contained information that the Guatemalan police had denied existed. The Historical Clarification Commission, which opened in 1997, had requested documents related to police and military actions during the 36-year civil war from the ministries of defense and the interior. The Commission received no documents, and were told that the Guatemalan police and military had no evidence of their operations during the period of armed conflict.

There has been much interest in making these documents public. The archives represent a crucial tool in the ongoing fight against impunity related to the civil war, as they detail the deaths and disappearances of thousands of Guatemalans and could contribute to building historical memory. Many hope that the documents can be used to supplement testimonies given for the Guatemalan Commission for Historical Clarification, as well as for trials related to disappearance and other grave human rights abuses committed in recent decades.

Read more: Recovery of the Guatemalan Police Archives - An Update, by Kate Boyle (George Washington University, The National Security Archive: July 2, 2008). See also our Projects and Publications: Impunity in Guatemala.

Gretchen Ritter is a Professor in the Department of Government at the University of Texas. She received her B.S. in government from Cornell University and her Ph.D. in political science from MIT. Professor Ritter specializes in studies of American politics, constitutional development, and gender politics from a historical and theoretical perspective. She is currently examining the impact of work-family issues on gender equity in the United States. Professor Ritter has been a Faculty Fellow at Princeton University, a Liberal Arts Fellow at Harvard Law School, and has received a National Endowment for the Humanities fellowship. She is the Director of the Center for Women's and Gender Studies at UT. She is the author of two books, Goldbugs and Greenbacks: The Antimonopoly Tradition and the Politics of Finance in America (NY: Cambridge University Press, 1997) and The Constitution as Social Design: Gender and Civic Membership in the American Constitutional Order (Stanford: Stanford University Press, 2006). She also has a co-edited book (with Desmond King, Robert Lieberman and Laurence Whitehead), entitled Democratization in America, forthcoming Johns Hopkins University Press. She has published articles, reviews and essays in numerous peer reviewed journals in law, political science, sociology, and gender studies.

Philippe Sands is Professor of Law at the University College London, where he teaches public international law, the settlement of international disputes, and environmental and natural resources law. He is also the Director of the University's Center on International Courts and Tribunals, a member of the Center for Law and the Environment, and a key staff member for the Project on International Courts and Tribunals. Sands has lectured and held academic positions at many institutions, including the Universite de Paris I (Sorbonne), University of Melbourne, and New York University. He is also the co-founder of the Foundation for International Environmental Law and Development and a member of the advisory board for several law publications. As a practicing barrister at Matrix Chambers, Sands has litigated cases before many international courts, including the International Court of Justice. His publications include Torture Team: Cruelty, Deception and the Compromise of Law and Lawless World: America and the Making and Breaking of Global Rules. Sands is a regular commentator on the BBC and CNN, and has written frequently for leading newspapers around the world.


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Itty Abraham is director of the South Asia Institute, the Marlene and Morton Meyerson Centennial Chair, and associate professor of government and Asian studies. Prior to this appointment, he was a fellow at the East-West Center, Washington, and taught at the Elliot School of International Affairs at George Washington University. Abraham was program director for South Asia, Southeast Asia, and Global Security and Cooperation at the Social Science Research Council in New York from 1992-2005, where he helped shape the intellectual framework for post-area studies scholarship. He earned his bachelor’s degree in economics at Loyola College, Madras, and his M.S. and Ph.D. in political science from the University of Illinois at Urbana-Champaign. He has received grants from the Ford, Rockefeller, and Wenner-Gren foundations, the Open Society Institute Burma Project and the U.S. Institute of Peace, and held a postdoctoral fellowship at the Center for International Security and Arms Control at Stanford University. His research interests include international relations, science and technology studies, and postcolonial theory. He is currently working on the history of Indian foreign policy and understanding social risk in regions of high natural background radiation.

Álvaro Restrepo is one of Colombia´s Contemporary Dance pioneers. He studied Philosophy, Literature, Music and Theater, before dedicating his life to dance. His work has been seen in more than 30 countries in the Americas, Europe and Asia. In 1992 he was commissioned as the Sub-Director of the Colombian Culture Institute and in 1993, as the Director of the Arts Superior Academy of Bogotá, where he created the first superior level Contemporary Dance school in the country. Since 1994, he has been living and working in Cartagena de Indias, where he created, with the French dancer and choreographer Marie France Delieuvin, EL COLEGIO DEL CUERPO de Cartagena de Indias - Colombia´s first Contemporary Dance choreographic formation center, a dance school for disadvantaged children, and a professional dance company. Through his work with Afrodescendent communities, Restrepo's dedication to his art becomes a vehicle for exploring human rights, race and social justice.

Jenifer K. Harbury is an activist, author, and attorney who has spent much of the past twenty years working to monitor and promote human rights in Guatemala. Her husband, Efrain Bamaca Velasquez, was a Mayan resistance leader who was "disappeared" by the Guatemalan military in 1992; subjected to long-term, severe torture; then extrajudicially executed. Harbury's efforts to save his life, which included three dangerous hunger strikes, resulted in startling disclosures about the close working relationship between the CIA and the Central American death squads. Since learning of her husband's death, she has devoted much of her time to pressing for human rights reforms for both the United States and Guatemalan governments. Harbury graduated from Harvard Law School in 1978 and has published two books about her experiences in Guatemala: Bridge of Courage (Common Courage Press, 1994) and Searching for Everardo (Warner Books, 1997). In 2005, Harbury published another book, Truth, Torture, and the American Way, which documents the long time use of torture by the CIA.

Barbara Harlow is the Louann and Larry Temple Centennial Professor of English Literatures in the Department of English at The University of Texas at Austin . She taught at the American University in Cairo from 1977 to 1983, and again 2006-07 as Visiting Professor and Acting Chair of English and Comparative Literature. Other teaching experience includes University College Galway (1992), University of Natal in Pietermaritzburg (1998) and University of Natal in Durban (2002). She is the author of Resistance Literature (1986), Barred: Women, Writing, and Political Detention (1992), After Lives: Legacies of Revolutionary Writing (1996), and co-editor with Mia Carter of Imperialism and Orientalism: A Documentary Sourcebook (1999) and Archives of Empire : Vol 1: From the East India Company to the Suez Canal and Vol 11, The Scramble for Africa (2003), and co-editor with Ferial Ghazoul of The View from Within: Writers and Critics and Contemporary Arabic Literature (1994), and with Toyin Falola of two volumes of essays in honor of Bernth Lindfors, Palavers of African Literature and African Writers and Readers (2002). She is currently working on an intellectual biography of the South African writer and activist, Ruth First.

Teaching and research interests include imperialism and orientalism, literature and human rights/social justice, the 19 th century novel, and comparative/interdisciplinary studies.

Alejandro Moreno, MD, MPH, JD, FACP, FCLM, is a faculty member at the University of Texas Medical Branch Austin Programs where he serves as an Associate Director of the Internal Medicine Residency Program. Dr. Moreno is also an adjunct faculty at the Boston University School of Public Health. He is the Associate Medical and Legal Director of the Center for Survivors of Torture and the co-founder of the Boston Center for Refugee Health and Human Rights at Boston Medical Center.

Dr. Moreno graduated from the Instituto de Ciencias de la Salud in Medellín, Colombia, where he received his medical degree. He completed his post-graduate clinical training at the Boston University Medical Center (Internal Medicine Residency Program and General Internal Medicine Fellowship Program). Dr. Moreno also holds a degree in public health from the Boston University School of Public Health and a law degree from St. Mary’s University. He actively practices medicine and law.

Dr. Moreno is a Fellow of the American College of Physicians and the American College of Legal Medicine. Since 1998, Dr. Moreno is a member of University of Texas Medical Branch Austin Programs.

Dr. Moreno has an extensive experience working with refugees, survivors of torture, and other immigrants. His work with these vulnerable populations includes direct patient care, curriculum development for medical and legal professionals, and clinical research. Dr. Moreno has served as an expert witness in numerous occasions before immigration court.

Karen Engle is Cecil D. Redford Professor in Law and director of the Bernard and Audre Rapoport Center for Human Rights and Justice, which she helped found in 2004. She is currently completing a book entitled Indigenous Roads to Development: Self-Determination, Human Rights and Culture. Her recent publications include ''Judging Sex in War'' (forthcoming, Michigan Law Review), ''Calling in the Troops: The Uneasy Relationship Among Human Rights, Women's Rights and Humanitarian Intervention,'' Harvard Human Rights Law Journal (2007), and ''Feminism and Its (Dis)contents: Criminalizing War-Time Rape in Bosnia and Herzegovin,'' American Journal of International Law (2005).

Gerald Torres is Bryant Smith Chair in Law at the University of Texas . A leading figure in critical race theory, Torres has written and lectured extensively on American Indian Law, as well as environmental law. His latest book, The Miner's Canary: Enlisting Race, Resisting Power, Transforming Democracy (Harvard University Press, 2002) with Harvard law professor Lani Guinier, was described by Publisher's Weekly as “one of the most provocative and challenging books on race produced in years.” Torres' many articles include “Translation and Stories” (Harvard Law Review, 2002), “Who Owns the Sky?” (Pace Law Review, 2001) (Garrison Lecture), “Taking and Giving: Police Power, Public Value, and Private Right” (Environmental Law, 1996), and “Translating Yonnondio by Precedent and Evidence: The Mashpee Indian Case” (Duke Law Journal, 1990).

Shannon Speed is an Assistant Professor of Anthropology. She has worked for the last decade in Chiapas, Mexico, on issues of human rights, indigenous rights and gender. She has published a number of articles on topics related to this research and is has recently completed a book entitled Global Discourses on the Local Terrain: Human Rights and Indigenous Resistance in Chiapas (forthcoming, Stanford University Press), as well as two co-edited volumes, Human Rights in the Maya Region: Global Politics, Moral Engagements, and Culture Contentions (Duke, 2008) and Dissident Women: Gender and Cultural Politics in Chiapas (UT Press, 2006).

Daniel Bonilla is an Associate Professor at Universidad de los Andes School of Law in Bogotá , Colombia . Professor Bonilla graduated from Universidad de los Andes School of Law in 1994. He earned his L.L.M. from Yale Law School in 1998 and his J.S.D. degree from the same university in 2005. He is the Director of the Public Interest Law Group of Universidad de los Andes. As the Director of G-DIP, Daniel works with students to bring cases before the Constitutional Court relating to a broad range of issues including racism, discrimination, indigenous rights, and the environment.  Current projects include securing collective land rights for Afro-Colombians on the Islas de Rosario and a public action claim based on the unconstitutionality of Law 100 which currently does not provide social security benefits for same sex pairs. La Constitución Multicultural (The Multicultural Consitution) and Hacia un Nuevo Derecho Constitucional (Toward a New Consitutional Law) are among his most recent publications. Areas of interest: Philosophy of law, constitutional law, public interest law and multiculturalism.

Valentine Moghadam is Professor of Sociology and Women's Studies, and Director of the Women's Studies Program at Purdue University. From May 2004 – December 2006 she was Chief of the Section for Gender Equality and Development, of the Social and Human Sciences Sector of UNESCO, in Paris, France. Her work at UNESCO involved networking with and capacity building of women's organizations, as well as policy-oriented research on globalization and women's human rights, cultures and gender equality, and the gender dynamics of conflict, peace, and reconstruction. She helped establish the Palestinian Women's Research and Documentation Center in Ramallah, Palestinian Authority. Prior to that, she was Director of Women's Studies and Professor of Sociology at Illinois State University.

Born in Tehran, Iran, Dr. Moghadam received her higher education in Canada and the U.S. After obtaining her Ph.D. in sociology from the American University in Washington, D.C. in 1986, she taught the sociology of development and women in development at New York University. From 1990 through 1995 she was Senior Researcher and Coordinator of the Research Program on Women and Development at the WIDER Institute of the United Nations University (UNU/WIDER), and was based in Helsinki, Finland. She was a member of the UNU delegation to the World Summit on Social Development (Copenhagen, March 1995), and the Fourth World Conference on Women (in Beijing in September 1995).

Dr. Moghadam is author of Modernizing Women: Gender and Social Change in the Middle East (first published 1993; updated second edition 2003), Women, Work and Economic Reform in the Middle East and North Africa (1998), and Globalizing Women: Transnational Feminist Networks (2005). Her edited book Identity Politics and Women: Cultural Reassertions and Feminisms in International Perspective (1994) was the first to examine fundamentalisms comparatively and cross-culturally.

Dr. Moghadam's areas of research are globalization, transnational feminist networks, civil society and citizenship, and women's employment in the Middle East. She prepared a background paper on Islam, culture, and women's rights in the Middle East for the UNDP's Human Development Report 2004. She is co-editor, with Massoud Karshenas, of Social Policy in the Middle East: Economic, Political, and Gender Dynamics (Palgrave Macmillan and UNRISD, 2006). Her most recently edited book is, From Patriarchy to Empowerment: Participation, Rights, and Women's Movements in the Middle East, North Africa and South Asia (2007).

Vasuki Nesiah is a Senior Associate and head of the gender program at the International Center for Transitional Justice (ICTJ).  She also leads the Center's work in South Asia.  Originally from Sri Lanka , Vasuki Nesiah joined the ICTJ following a post-doctoral fellowship in teaching human rights law with the Human Rights Institute at Columbia Law School.  She continues her Columbia University affiliation today as an adjunct associate professor teaching in the Human Rights Program of the School of Public and International Affairs (SIPA).  

She has published and lectured in international and comparative law, feminist theory, law and development, postcolonial studies, constitutionalism, and governance in plural societies. She completed her doctorate in public international law at Harvard Law School, where she also received her JD. She holds a BA in philosophy and political science from Cornell University. She was also a visiting student of philosophy, politics, and economics at Oxford University.

Patrick Macklem is the William C. Graham Professor of Law at the University of Toronto. He holds law degrees from Harvard and Toronto, and an undergraduate degree in political science and philosophy from McGill. He served as Law Clerk for Chief Justice Brian Dickson of the Supreme Court of Canada and as a constitutional advisor to the Royal Commission on Aboriginal Peoples. He is a recurring Visiting Professor at Central European University . He has been a Visiting Scholar at Stanford Law School and UCLA School of Law. In 2003, he was selected as a Fulbright New Century Scholar, taught at the European University Institute, and was a Visiting Scholar at Harvard Law School . In 2006-2007, he was a Senior Global Research Fellow at the Center for Human Rights and Global Justice at NYU School of Law. In 2007-2008, he is a Member of the Institute for Advanced Study in Princeton, New Jersey.

Professor Macklem's teaching interests include constitutional law, international human rights law, indigenous peoples, ethnic and cultural minorities, and labour law and policy. He is the author of Indigenous Difference and the Constitution of Canada (2001) (awarded the Canadian Political Science Association 2002 Donald Smiley Prize for best book on Canadian governance and the Canadian Federation for the Humanities and Social Sciences 2002 Harold Innis Prize by for the best English-language book in the social sciences), co-editor of Canadian Constitutional Law (2003); The Security of Freedom: Essays on Canada's Anti-terrorism Bill (2001), and Labour and Employment Law (2004), and has published numerous articles on constitutional law, labour law, indigenous peoples and the law, and international human rights law. He is a Fellow of the Royal Society of Canada.


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Rachel Holmes is a writer, broadcaster, columnist and reviewer. Formerly an academic, Holmes held lectureships in English at Queen Mary College, University of London and the University of Sussex. She is also the coordinator of Friends of the TAC, an international activist and lobbying organization that supports the Treatment Action Campaign in the fight for HIV and AIDS in South Africa. Her books include Scanty Particulars: The Life of Dr. James Barry (2002) and African Queen: the Real Life of the Hottentot Venus (2007). African Queen is a probing look at historical racism and sexual exploitation presented through the life of an extraordinary woman, Saartjie Baartmen, the so-called Hottentot Venus, exhibited in 1810 in London and Paris.

Robert D. King is the Audre and Bernard Rapoport Regents Chair of Jewish Studies and Distinguished Teaching Professor in the Linguistics Department at the University of Texas. His current research and publication interests are three: the Yiddish language, especially in relation to what it tells us about Jewish history; the politics of language in general; and, third, the language politics of India in particular. Dr. King's most recent publications include Nehru and the Language Politics of India (Delhi: Oxford University Press, 1996), and "Does One Nation Equal One Language?" (The Atlantic Monthly, April 1997). The thread that runs through Dr. King's current work is the relationship among language, ethnicity, nationhood, and politics in the largest sense of the word.

Derek Jinks is Assistant Professor of Law at the University of Texas. His research and teaching interests include: public international law, international humanitarian law, human rights law, and criminal law. He received his undergraduate degree from the University of Texas in 1991, M.A. and M.Phil. in sociology from Yale University in 1998 and 1999 respectively, and J.D. from Yale Law School in 1998. After law school, he clerked for Judge William C. Canby, Jr. of the U.S. Court of Appeals for the Ninth Circuit and worked in the Prosecutor's Office of the International Criminal Tribunal for the Former Yugoslavia. He has also worked as Senior Legal Advisor and United Nations Representative for the South Asia Human Rights Documentation Centre in India; and served in the delegation of the International Service for Human Rights at the Rome conference for the establishment of a permanent International Criminal Court. Since 2006, he has been a member of the U.S. Secretary of State's Advisory Committee on International Law. He is the author of The Rules of War: The Geneva Conventions in the Age of Terror (forthcoming Oxford University Press 2007) and International Humanitarian Law (forthcoming Oxford University Press 2008) (with Ryan Goodman).

Scott Sullivan is Assistant Professor of Law at the University of Texas. He teaches and writes in foreign relations law and international law. Prior to joining UT, Professor Sullivan received his JD at the University of Chicago and a LL.M at the European University Institute while on a U.S. Fulbright Fellowship. He has practiced at private law firms in Chicago and New York advising companies on U.S. economic sanctions programs. Professor Sullivan has been extensively involved in the representation of several individuals detained at the U.S. Naval Station at Guantanamo Bay, Cuba.

Christine Kovic is an associate professor of anthropology at the University of Houston, Clear Lake. Her previous research explores issues of indigenous rights and the Catholic Church in highland Chiapas. Kovic collaborated with the Diocesan-based Center for Human Rights Fray Bartolomé de Las Casas from 1993-1995, and conducted fieldwork with indigenous Catholics in one of the many colonias that surround the city of San Cristóbal de Las Casas.  Her publications include the books Mayan Voices for Human Rights (University of Texas, 2005) and Women in Chiapas (co-edited with Christine Eber, Routledge, 2003).

Julio Solórzano Foppa is a producer, writer and director from Mexico City. His professional life has been centered mostly around organizing and producing international cultural and artistic events. He has organized several Performing Arts Festivals, among them "The International Festival of the Caribbean Culture” and “Human Rights for the Artistic and Cultural Perspective.” He has been the producer and artistic director of several records, the writer and director of many radio programs, and the producer of two feature films, “Cabeza de Vaca” and “Cronos.” In 2000, he was the first Latin American appointed as a board member of the International Society for the Performing Arts. His mother, Alaíde Foppa, a feminist, poet, art critic and university professor, was kidnapped and disappeared on December 19, 1980, by the Guatemalan Army.

Andy Palacio is not only the most popular musician in Belize, he is also a serious music and cultural archivist with a deep commitment to preserving his unique Garifuna culture. Long a leading proponent of Garifuna popular music and a tireless advocate for the maintenance of the Garifuna language and traditions, Palacio has recently undertaken a new and ambitious direction with the formation of the Garifuna Collective. Born and raised in the coastal village of Barranco, it was while working with a literacy project on Nicaragua's Atlantic Coast in 1980 and discovering that the Garifuna language and culture was steadily dying in that country, that a strong cultural awareness took hold and his approach to music became more defined. While his academic background and self-scholarship allowed for his on-going documentation of Garifuna culture through lyrics and music, it has been his exuberance as a performer that gained him world-wide recognition. Palacio lives in Belize where he continues his work in promoting Culture and the Arts. In December 2004, he was appointed Cultural Ambassador and Deputy Administrator of the National Institute of Culture and History. In 2007, he and the Garifuna Collective will be embarking on an ambitious worldwide touring schedule in an effort to bring the beauty and power of Garifuna music to a wide audience.

Thomas Franck is Murry and Ida Becker Professor of Law Emeritus at New York University School of Law, where he was Director of the Center for International Studies from 1965-2002. He is one of the leading scholars in international law, and is a prolific writer whose publications include Fairness in International Law and Institutions. ( Oxford University Press, 1995) and most recently Recourse To Force: State Action Against Threats and Armed Attacks (Cambridge University Press, 2002). He teaches courses in international law and UN constitutional law. Professor Franck's interest in public international law is practical as well as theoretical. Indeed, he has acted as legal advisor or counsel to many foreign governments, including Tanganyika, Kenya, Zanzibar, Mauritius, Solomon Islands, El Salvador, Bosnia and Herzegovina and Chad. As an advocate before the International Court of Justice, he has successfully represented Chad and is currently representing Bosnia in a suit brought against Serbia under the Genocide Convention. He has served as a judge ad hoc (Indonesia/Malaysia) before the World Court from 2001-2002. He is a member of the Tribunal constituted under the Law of the Sea Treaty to hear the boundary dispute between Guyana and Suriname. And, from 1986 to the present, he serves on the Department of State Advisory Committee on International Law. Professor Franck is past President of the American Society of International Law (1998-2000) and served as editor-in-chief of the The American Journal of International Law from 1984-1993. Today, Franck lends his services to numerous organizations ranging from the American Branch of the International Law Association to the American Society of International Law.

Liliana Obregon is a professor of international law at Universidad de los Andes Law School in Bogotá, Colombia where she also directs the new international law program. She specializes in the history and theory of international law and international institutions in Latin America. She also studies comparative systems of human rights protection and third world approaches to international law. Her recent publications include “Between Civilization and Barbarism: Creole Interventions in International Law” ( Third World Quarterly ). She is c o-author of Colombia Venezuela: crisis o negociación (Colombia Venezuela: Crisis or Negotiation). ( Tercer Mundo Editores).

Amr Shalakany is Assistant Professor of Law at the American University in Cairo, where he also directs the LL.M program. Before joining AUC, Professor Shalakany was the Jeremiah Smith Junior Visiting Assistant Professor at Harvard Law School, where he taught Comparative Law and Islamic Law. He also served as legal advisor to the PLO Negotiations Support Unit in Ramallah during the Israeli-Palestinian Peace Process, and taught at Birzeit University and helped set up the Law Clinic there. He also worked as a securities lawyer with the law firm of Baker & McKenzie in London. His publications include “The Origins of Comparative Law in the Arab World, or how sometimes losing your Asalah can be Good for you,” in Rethinking Masters of Comparative Law , and “Arbitration and the Third World: Bias under the Scepter of Neo-Liberalism,” in the Harvard International Law Journal.

Denise Gilman is currently a Georgetown University L.L.M. student and Teaching Fellow at the Georgetown University Law Center, where she co-teaches an Asylum clinic. During her time at Georgetown she has directly represented clients in proceedings before the Department of Homeland Security and immigration court. After graduating from Columbia Law School, Ms. Gilman clerked for the Honorable Judge Thomas M. Reavley of the Fifth Circuit before entering into a distinguished career in human rights. Before returning to school Ms. Gilman worked as an attorney for the Inter-American Commission on Human Rights where she represented Guatemala and Colombia. While with Human Rights First, she worked to implement a project to combat the use of torture to obtain confessions in criminal proceedings in Mexico. She also worked for the Washington Lawyer’s Committee for Human Rights and Urban Affairs, representing political asylum seekers. Her publications include “Calling the United States’ Bluff: How Sovereign Immunity Undermines the United States’ Claim to an Effective Domestic Human Rights System,” in the Georgetown Law Journal (forthcoming), and “A Disabling Environment: Governmental Restrictions on Freedom of Association of Human Rights NGOs in Mexico” in the Lawyers Committee for Human Rights (1999).

Rosalva Aída Hernández Castillo (CIESAS, Mexico , D.F.) is an anthropologist and activist who lived for fifteen years in Chiapas . She earned her doctorate in anthropology from Stanford University. She currently works under the auspices of CIESAS, the Center for Research and Advanced Studies in Social Anthropology. One of her projects involves exploring new and old opportunities for power through indigenous women, collective organization, and daily resistance by analyzing the comparative histories of indigenous women's initiatives in Chiapas, Guerrero, Oaxaca, and Veracruz. She has worked extensively in the past on exploring plural identities in Chiapas as well as the human rights of Guatemalan refugees in Mexico. Hernandez Castillo lectured at the University of London Instititute of Latin American Studies on "Indigenous Law and Identity Politics in Mexico: Women's Struggles in a Multicultural Nation" and "Indigenous Cosmovision as an Element of Resistance in the Struggles of Indigenous Women in Mesoamerica." She is also on the Humanities Awards Commission for the Academia Mexicana de Ciencias. Her publications include: El Estado y los indígenas en tiempos del PAN: neoindigenismo, identidad y legalidad (2004), Mayan Lives, Mayan Utopias: the Indigenous Peoples of Chiapas and the Zapatista Rebellion (2003); and The Other Word: Women and Violence in Chiapas Before and After Acteal (2001).